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Title: Frequency regulation strategies in grid integrated offshore wind turbines via VSC-HVDC technology: A review
Authors: Jallad, J.
Mekhilef, S.
Mokhlis, H.
Keywords: frequency regulation;high voltage direct current transmission control;inertia emulation;voltage source converter;wind turbine-permanent magnet synchronous generators (WT-PMSG)
Issue Date: 23-Aug-2017
Publisher: Energies
Citation: Jallad, J., Mekhilef, S., & Mokhlis, H. (2017). Frequency regulation strategies in grid integrated offshore wind turbines via VSC-HVDC technology: A review. Energies, 10(9), 1244.
Series/Report no.: 10;9
Abstract: The inclusion of wind energy in a power system network is currently seeing a significant increase. However, this inclusion has resulted in degradation of the inertia response, which in turn seriously affects the stability of the power system’s frequency. This problem can be solved by using an active power reserve to stabilize the frequency within an allowable limit in the event of a sudden load increment or the loss of generators. Active power reserves can be utilized via three approaches: (1) de-loading method (pitching or over-speeding) by a variable speed wind turbine (VSWT); (2) stored energy in the capacitors of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) transmission; and (3) coordination of frequency regulation between the offshore wind farms and the VSC-HVDC transmission. This paper reviews the solutions that can be used to overcome problems related to the frequency stability of grid- integrated offshore wind turbines. It also details the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) with full-scale back to back (B2B) converters, its corresponding control strategies, and a typical VSC-HVDC system with an associated control system. The control methods, both on the levels of a wind turbine and the VSC-HVDC system that participate in a system’s primary frequency control and emulation inertia, are discussed.
Appears in Collections:Engineering and Technology Faculty

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